Erweiterte Suche

Sie sind hier

Startseite

Philippe Calain

Humanitarian ethics in Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders: Discussing dilemmas and mitigating moral distress

As a humanitarian medical organization, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) intervenes in places around the world affected by conflict and crisis. Although we are guided by humanitarian principles, our medical teams are often confronted with complicated dilemmas. In a chapter from a new book called Humanitarian Action and Ethics (Zed Books), current and former MSF field workers consider some of the ethical challenges that form an inevitable part of MSF's medical humanitarian action, and how the organization can better enable our staff and front-line field workers to address them.

Attacks on Hospitals: an Alarming Problem for Military Medicine as well as for Humanitarian Medicine

As part of International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Additional Protocols I and II of 1977 to the Geneva Conventions and other treaties provide for the protection of patients, medical personnel and health infrastructures during armed conflicts. They recognize the primacy of medical ethics in times of war, notably the principle of non-discrimination. Attacks against hospitals or health care providers during armed conflicts signal a blatant disregard for such protections. A state of affairs where IHL is ignored, denied or revisited has far-reaching consequences for the medical profession.

The evolving role of CSR in international development: Evidence from Canadian extractive companies’ involvement in community health initiatives in low-income countries

Overseas development agencies and international finance organisations view the exploitation of minerals as a strategy for alleviating poverty in low-income countries. However, for local communities that are directly affected by extractive industry projects, economic and social benefits often fail to materialise. By engaging in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), transnational companies operating in the extractive industries ‘space’ verbally commit to preventing environmental impacts and providing health services in low-income countries.

Response to 'On Complicity and Compromise by Chiara Lepora and Robert Goodin

Chiara Lepora and Robert Goodin invite us to join their insightful ‘conversation’ on complicity and compromise. Their book makes a dense, utterly precise and rewarding reading, as one proceeds stepwise through the logic of their philosophical arguments. For those unfamiliar with the relatively new discipline of ‘humanitarian ethics’, it might be disconcerting at first to see humanitarian actions brought to illustrate theories on complicity, with the Rwandan refugees crisis of 1994 and the tortured patient taken as two exemplary cases.

The Ebola clinical trials: a precedent for research ethics in disasters

The West African Ebola epidemic has set in motion a collective endeavour to conduct accelerated clinical trials, testing unproven but potentially lifesaving interventions in the course of a major public health crisis. This unprecedented effort was supported by the recommendations of an ad hoc ethics panel convened in August 2014 by the WHO.

Defective interfering genomes and Ebola virus persistence

Michael Jacobs and colleagues (The Lancet, 2016, Vol. 388, p. 498-503) provide clinical and virological evidence of a relapse of Ebola virus disease (EVD) presenting as acute meningo-encephalitis 9 months after recovery from an acute infection. However exceptional, this case adds to an increasing number of reports suggesting that Ebola virus can persist for months in immune-privileged anatomical sites, such as semen, ocular tissues, breastmilk, and the central nervous system.

Reaching out to Ebola victims: Coercion, persuasion or an appeal for self-sacrifice?

The 2014–2015 Ebola crisis in West Africa has highlighted the practical limits of upholding human rights and common ethical principles when applying emergency public-health measures. The role of medical teams in the implementation of quarantine and isolation has been equivocal, particularly when such measures are opposed by communities who are coerced by the temporary suspension of civil liberties. In their encounters with Ebola victims, outreach teams face moral dilemmas, where the boundaries are unclear between coercion, persuasion and appeals for self-sacrifice.

Coincident polio and Ebola crises expose similar fault lines in the current global health regime

In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared two "public health emergencies of international concern", in response to the worldwide polio situation and the Ebola epidemic in West Africa respectively. Both emergencies can be seen as testing moments, challenging the current model of epidemic governance, where two worldviews co-exist: global health security and humanitarian biomedicine.

Counterterrorism policies and practices: health and values at stake

Distrust and suspicion that public health programmes are being used to advance foreign interests have contributed to the increase in murders and violent attacks on vaccination workers. There have been setbacks to polio eradication efforts and other public health objectives. Counterterrorism policies and practices can have unintended health impacts, especially where health programmes are co-opted or undermined, in countries where health systems are strained and population health indicators are poor.

Extractive resources and the Ebola economy

Letter about extractive resources and Ebola, a response to the recent briefing by Wilkinson and Leach “Briefing: Ebola–myths, realities, and structural violence” published in African Affairs.

Seiten