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Les relations entre acteurs associatifs et Etat, clé de compréhension des Révolutions arabes

The new situation created by the 2011 "Arab Spring" goes to the heart of relations between associations, NGOs and governments. Indeed, populations have been placing increased pressure on the majority of Arab countries, partly due to the profound transformation of the voluntary sector. A book edited by Caroline Abu-Sada and Benedict Challand, which was written for the most part before the beginning of the acceleration of the mobilizations against the regimes, includes six studies that can help better understand these recent events.

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Description and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo

The war in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has been the subject of numerous studies related to the problem of sexual violence. Such violence is known to be part of strategic war plans to conquer and destroy communities, but it is now unfortunately prevalent in times of relative calm.

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Violences sexuelles en République Démocratique du Congo: Résistances et appropriations institutionnelles par les ONG

This work offers to analyse the learning process of the humanitarian organization Médecins Sans Frontière (Doctors Without Borders / MSF) around the notions of victims of sexual violence. The first part is dedicated to a conceptual and critical essay on the concepts of rape victims, in particular in the field of social sciences, as well as to an introduction to the history of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The second part of the study presents a qualitative study of one MSF’s most important intervention in Eastern DRC in favour of victims of sexual violence.

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Research Ethics and International Epidemic Response: The case of Ebola and Marburg Hemorrhagic Fevers

Outbreaks of filovirus (Ebola and Marburg) hemorrhagic fevers in Africa are typically the theater of rescue activities involving international experts and agencies tasked with reinforcing national authorities in clinical management, biological diagnosis, sanitation, public health surveillance and coordination. These outbreaks can be seen as a paradigm for ethical issues posed by epidemic emergencies, through the convergence of such themes as: isolation and quarantine, privacy and confidentiality and the interpretation of ethical norms across different ethnocultural settings.

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Les Territoires occupés palestiniens : un terrain d’intervention de plus en plus complexe, mais toujours aussi nécessaire

Since June 2007, the split between the leaders of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank has been confirmed. This situation has had even more catastrophic consequences for the Occupied Palestinian Territories, as it is accompanied by an Israeli occupation that is not becoming more flexible. Despite the truce in place since June 2008 between the Hamas and Israel, Israeli restrictions on the movement of goods and people are stricter than ever, and the de facto separation between the two territories make it difficult to foresee a national future and the construction of a Palestinian State.

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Palestine, assez d’alibis humanitaires

In the occupied Palestinian Territories, the international community has clearly chosen the principle of humanitarian "contention": it gives millions of euros and dollars in aid via UN agencies, international and local NGOs... in order to offset the effects of the military occupation of the West Bank and, for over a year now, the tragic consequences of the blockade on Gaza. This method allows it to contain the situation without having to intervene, intervention being the last thing that the great powers of the Security Council want.

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Public health driven restrictions versus individual patients’ right: Is it the role of MSF to enforce public health regulations?

In public health practice, some circumstances may lead to a clash between individual patients’ rights and measures aimed at safeguarding the security of populations. The dilemma is classically illustrated by a number of severe communicable diseases with high potential of transmission, such as SARS, viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) and pneumonic plague. National public health regulations are expected to provide legal and technical guidance over intrusive or restrictive measures applied to communicable diseases control.

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